Limult Feldspar Mining and Processing Factory in Nigeria

Feldspar is a kind of silicate minerals which contains calcium, sodium and potassium, there are many categories of Feldspar including albite, anorthite, etc. Feldspar mining process mainly applying flotation process, and Feldspar mining machines mainly including jaw crusher, ball mill, spiral chute, and concentrating table, etc.

Feldspar ore is the main source of feldspar mineral concentrate or purified feldspar used in the manufacture of various grades of glass and ceramics including high-end ceramics and electronic-grade glass fibers. The glass and ceramic industries, in particular, are major consumers of feldspar, accounting for 95% of total consumption.

In recent times, the increasing rate of depletion of high-grade feldspar ores has resulted in lower-grade ores becoming the primary source of feldspar. This has placed added pressure on producers to further optimize existing feldspar processing methods like flotation to more efficiently produce higher grades of feldspar for the specialty glass, ceramics and electronics markets.

Process Description

Conventional open-pit mining methods including removal of overburden, drilling and blasting, loading, and transport by trucks are used to mine ores containing feldspar. A froth flotation process is used for most feldspar ore beneficiation.

An amine collector that floats off and removes mica is used in the first flotation step. Also, sulfuricacid, pine oil, and fuel oil are added. After the feed is dewatered in a classifier or cyclone to remove reagents,sulfuric acid is added to lower the pH. Petroleum sulfonate (mahogany soap) is used to remove iron-bearingminerals.

To finish the flotation process, the discharge from the second flotation step is dewatered again, and a cationic amine is used for collection as the feldspar is floated away from quartz in an environment of hydrofluoric acid (pH of 2.5 to 3.0).

If feldspathic sand is the raw material, no size reduction may be required. Also, if little or no mica is present, the first flotation step may be bypassed. Sometimes the final flotation stage is omitted, leaving a feldspar-silica mixture (often referred to as sandspar), which is usually used in glassmaking.

Limult poses the best capabilities, best commodities and best assets, to create long-term value and high returns. We are among the top producers of major commodities, including iron ore, metallurgical coal and copper with substantial interests in oil, gas and energy coal.

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Liquefied Natural Gas Plant by Limult

The earth has enormous quantities of
natural gas, but much of it is in areas far from where the gas is needed. To
move this cleaner-burning fuel across oceans, natural gas must be converted
into liquefied natural gas (LNG), a process called liquefaction.

What is LNG –
liquefied natural gas?

is natural gas that has been cooled to –260° F (–162° C), changing it from a
gas into a liquid that is 1/600th of its original volume. This reduction in volume enables the gas to be transported
economically over long distances.

Liquefaction plants

 LNG liquefaction plants are generally
classified as baseload or peak shaving, depending on their purpose and size.
The process for the liquefaction of natural gas is essentially the same as that
used in modern domestic refrigerators, but on a massive scale. A refrigerant
gas is compressed, cooled, condensed, and let down in pressure through a valve
that reduces its temperature by the Joule-Thomson effect. The refrigerant gas
is then used to cool the feed gas. The temperature of the feed gas is
eventually reduced to −161°C, the temperature at which methane, the main constituent
of natural gas, liquefies. At this temperature, all the other hydrocarbons in
the natural gas will also be in liquid form. In the LNG process, constituents
of the natural gas (propane, ethane, and methane) are typically used as
refrigerants either individually or as a mixture. Feed pretreatment and
refrigerant component recovery are normally included in the LNG liquefaction
facility. LPG and condensate may be recovered as byproducts.

How do we use

LNG is returned to a
gaseous state at LNG import and regasification terminals around the world. Once
it has been warmed to become natural gas, it is dispersed through pipelines for
use by homes and businesses. It can be used in a variety of ways: Residential
uses for natural gas include cooking, heating homes and generating electricity,
while commercial uses for natural gas include heating, generating electricity,
manufacturing products like fertilizers, paints and medicines, and occasionally
fueling commercial vehicles.

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Bonny Island Liquified Natural Gas Plant Development by Limult

The Plant

​ The plant ranks amongst the biggest and top performers worldwide; its performance is regularly benchmarked internationally with other LNG plants around the world.

The plant has rapidly and successfully made the transition
from a construction project to a stable production operation, with a robust
framework of people, processes, systems and organisation, as well as relentless
focus on operational excellence and continuous improvement. In addition to
regular maintenance of the assets to assure integrity and reliability,
opportunities are continuously sought to debottleneck the plant, incorporating
proven techniques and processes to maximize production and manage human
interferences and impacts. The plant has also embarked on a structured
programme of asset rejuvenation to extend the plant life beyond the current
design life. All these activities are underpinned by a Health, Safety, Security
and Environment (HSSE) culture that continually seeks improvements in the safe
and sustainable utilisation of our assets.

For NLNG, November 1995 will remain a remarkable month in
its corporate history. That was when the Final Investment Decision (FID) was
taken by the shareholders to build a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant in
Finima, Bonny Island in Rivers State. This was followed in December 1995 by the
award of a turnkey Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract to
a consortium of engineering firms, TSKJ, comprised of Technip, Snamprogetti,
M.W. Kellog and Japan Gas Corporation for the Plant (consisting of two
trains—Trains 1 and 2, called the Base Project), the Gas Transmission System
(GTS) and the Residential Area (RA).

Construction at the Plant site commenced in February 1996
and on August 12, 1999, Train 2 was ready for startup. Production of LNG
commenced on September 15. Train 1 subsequently came on stream on February 27,
2000. The second phase of development, called Expansion Project, commenced with
an FID in February 1999 to develop Train 3 and the Plant's Natural Gas Liquids
(NGLs) Handling Unit (LHU)—condensate stabilisation and Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG) production units. The expansion project was completed and came into
operation in November 2002.

The next phase of development called the NLNGPlus Project,
comprised of Trains 4 and 5, commenced with an FID in March 2002. Train 4 came
on stream in November 2005 and Train 5 was started up I February 2006. NLNGSix
Project, consisting of Train 6 and additional condensate processing, LPG
storage and jetty facilities, commenced with an FID in 2004. Train 6 became
operational in December 2007.

With six trains currently operational, the entire complex is
capable of producing 22 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, and 5mtpa of
NGLs from 3.5 Billion (standard) cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of natural gas

Plans for building Train 7 which will lift the total
production capacity to 30mtpa of LNG are currently progressing. FID for the
8mtpa train was taken in December 2019, paving the way for the award of
Engineering, Procurement and Construction Contracts to SCD JV Consortium in May
2020. Find out more about Train 7 Project.

​The main elements of the facilities already in operation

Diversified gas supply (Associated Gas and Non-Associated
Gas) and six main dedicated gas transmission pipelines, with four of them
located on-shore.

Six LNG processing units (trains) with a total nameplate
processing capacity of 22mtpa.

Four LNG storage tanks, each with a capacity of 84,200 cubic

Four LPG refrigerated storage tanks, each with a capacity of
65,000 cubic metres (two each for propane and butane).

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our refining industry development services or visit our store at to see more products that we make available for the people.