Limestone is composed mostly of the mineral calcite and comprising about 15% of the Earth’s sedimentary crust. It is a basic building block of the construction industry (dimension stone) and a chief material from which aggregate, cement, lime and building stone are made. 71% of all crushed stone produced is either limestone or dolomite. As a source for lime, it is used to make paper, plastics, glass, paint, steel, cement, carpets, used in water treatment and purification plants and in the processing of various foods and household items (including medicines).

Limestone is a rock with an enormous diversity of uses. Most limestone is made into crushed stone and used as a construction material for road base and railroad ballast as well as an aggregate in concrete.

Some additional but also important uses of limestone include dimension stone for use in construction and in architecture, roofing granules applied as a weather and heat-resistant coating on asphalt-impregnated roofing, flux stone in smelting and other metal refining processes, as well as the production of Portland cement.

The largest use of lime is in steel manufacturing where lime is used as a flux to remove impurities such as phosphorus and sulfur. Lime is used in power plant smokestacks to remove sulfur from the emissions. Lime is also used in mining, paper and paper pulp production, water treatment and purification, and in wastewater treatment. It is used in road construction and traditional building construction.

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