Limult Laterite for Road Construction

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminum and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The term ‘Laterite’ appeared in academic literature over a century ago. Buchanan (1807) first used this term to denote a building material in the mountainous region of Malabar, India (Maignien, 1966). The term ‘Laterite’ could mean brick earth in some local dialects but the name ‘latérite’ got its meaning from a Latin word later, meaning ‘brick’ and so relating solely to the use of these soils in block making (Prescott and Pendleton, 1952 in Gidigasu, 1974). There have been so many arguments,

Characterisation of laterite for road construction

Lateritic soils exist in many places in tropical regions of Africa and America. They are frequently used for road construction. It is important to use them in an optimized way and attempts are made to improve their description and characterization for road applications. Laboratory work done in Brazil, Senegal and France was aimed at including specific properties of laterites in their classification, especially the degradability of their gravelly and sandy fractions due to weathering and compaction during construction works. The paper presents results of laboratory tests, which highlight the importance of particle size reduction due to compaction and its variability. The link between the grain sizes of raw laterites and those of the same laterite after compaction should be further studied, in order to help the road designer in tropical and equatorial countries.

Structure, Composition and Properties of Lateritic Soils

Laterites vary greatly in structure, but can be reduced to the following three structural patterns:

(a) The indurated elements form a continuous, coherent skeleton;

(b) The indurated elements are free concretions or nodules in an earthy matrix;

(c) The indurated elements cement pre-existing materials. These structural patterns exhibit great variability in relation to the shape and size of the elements involved and the degree of induration. The degree of hardness ranges from products that are practically unconsolidated and scarcely coherent to the hardest blocks which can be broken only with a hammer. Induration is an empirical criterion, as it is impossible to give quantitative expressions to any character related to the mechanical properties of the material. The usual definition of induration is a state in which the hard brittle consistency of the medium is not affected by humidity. Induration, which involves the precipitation of goethite in a reticular network, is influenced by composition and the extent of crystallization of the components in the soil: the higher the sesqui oxide content, the greater the induration. In other words, hardness increases as the iron content increases; the hardest laterites are also the least hydrated.

Laterites vary in color, but are usually brightly colored. The shades most frequently encountered are pink, ochre, red and brown; however, some occurrences are mottled and streaked with violet, and others exhibit green marbling. A single sample may exhibit a whole range of colors merging more or less perceptibly into one another in a variety of patterns and forms. Laterites owe their color to iron oxides in various states of hydration and sometimes also to manganese. Their mineralogy generally involves quartz, kaolinite, hematite, goethite, and sometime maghemite. Kaolinite is always present with iron oxides. The physical properties of lateritic soil vary according to the mineralogical composition and particle size distribution of the soil. The granulometry can vary from very fine to gravel according to its origin, thus influencing geotechnical properties such as plasticity and compressive strength. One of the main advantages of lateritic material is that it does not readily swell with water. This makes it an excellent packing material particularly when it is not too sandy.

Improving Lateritic Soils for Construction Purposes

Stabilization processes are very complex because many parameters come into play. The knowledge of soil properties can help to better consider what changes, the economic studies (cost and time), as well as production and construction techniques to use. The simplest process consists of taking soil and drying it in open-air. It is the ―pise technique, rammed earth, adobe, and brick dried in the sun, widely used in the majority of African countries. More elaborate processes can include heat treatment, or mixing soil with ordinary Portland cement, lime, etc.

Limult Group sells quality Laterite for road constructions_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Plaster Sand

Plaster Sand not only can be used to make plaster but it can also be used in a cement/sand/gravel mix to make concrete. Use Plaster Sand to set pavers, or fill in holes and low spots in your lawn.

Plastering is one of the most ancient building techniques. Evidence indicates that primitive peoples plastered their reed or sapling shelters with mud, thus developing more durable structures and more effective screens against vermin and inclement weather. More lasting and slightly materials in time replaced mud. Some of the earliest plastering extant is of a quality comparable to that used in modern times. The pyramids of Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least 4,000 years ago that is still hard and durable. The principal tools of the plasterer of that time were in design and purpose like those used today. For their finest work the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsum that is identical to plaster of Paris.

Plaster as a medium of artistic expression waned by the 19th century, when imitation and mechanical reproduction displaced this creative art. However, as a surface material for interior walls and ceilings and to a lesser degree for exterior walls, plaster remains in common use. It facilitates cleanliness and sanitation in building and is a retardant to the spread of fire.

which sand is best for plastering?

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It provides the structure of plaster, and the quality of your sand can make the difference between success and failure.

Basically river sand are used for any plastering work. Generally, in any plastering work plasterers are used natural sand, crushed stone sand or crushed gravel sand. Though, there is a grading limit of sand which are used in plastering work. Other types of sand will also work, but it could be more expensive to use.

Limult Group sells quality plaster sand for strong housing construction_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


BRICKS BY SHAPES

In the history of professional construction practices, brick is one of the oldest of all building materials. It is also arguably the most durable since there are brick walls, foundations, pillars, and road surfaces constructed thousands of years ago that are still intact. Today, bricks are most often used for wall construction, especially as an ornamental outer wall surface.

Brick Defined

Officially, the term brick is used to denote a building unit made of shaped clay, but in modern times it is used to refer to any stone- or clay-based building unit that is joined with cementitious mortar when used in construction. Typically, bricks are about 4 wide, 8 inches long, with a variety of thicknesses. Larger stone- or clay-based building units of the type used in foundations are usually called blocks.

How Bricks Are Categorized

There are several ways that brick can be categorized. For example, you can divide brick into the types used for facing (exposed and visible on the exterior of a structure) vs. backing bricks (which are used structurally and are hidden from view)Another means of categorizing brick is according to how they are manufactured: unfired (brick that is air-cured) and fired (brick that is baked in ovens to harden it). Bricks can be also categorized according to their typical use: common bricks or engineering bricks. For purposes of residential construction, it is usually common bricks that are of most interest, since engineering bricks are more often used in civil engineering projects, such as road or bridge construction, or sewers construction.

Bricks can also be categorized according to their shape. Some common shapes include:

  • Brick veneers: These bricks are thin and used for surface cladding.
  • Airbricks: These bricks contain large holes to circulate air and lessen weight. They are used on suspended floors and cavity walls.
  • Perforated bricks: These bricks contain many cylindrical holes drilled throughout the brick. They are very light in weight. 
  • Bullnose brick: These are bricks moulded with round angles.
  • Paving bricks: These bricks contain a good amount of iron. They are used in underfoot paving applications.
  • Capping bricks: These bricks are used to cap the tops of freestanding walls. 
  • Hollow bricks: About one-third of the weight of the normal bricks, these are used mostly in partition walls where load-bearing is not required.

The African hut

A hut is a building of a lower quality than a house (durable, well-built dwelling) but higher quality than a shelter (place of refuge or safety) such as a tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling.

The hut in the 21st century

Although huts still exist in poor, mostly rural Africa, one could safely argue that they are a thing of the past; that these structures have been overtaken by technology and modernization. However, due to their benefits, like natural air conditioning, serenity and tranquility, the hut has found its way into the modern age.

Huts are not only environmentally friendly but also economically sound. A grass-thatched house is cool and when you drink water kept in a pot, it is as cold as water from the fridge,

The re-emergence of the hut stems from the increasing temperature in Africa due to global warming. In order to attract clients, hotels and luxury pubs have adopted a grass-thatched style for their cottages and bars. Huts are very comfortable. This is mainly because of the building materials used. Both clay and grass are good insulators, but they are porous and allow a free flow of air.

It is often very hot during the afternoons in Africa. The hut remains cool and is a welcome resting place. At night, when temperatures fall, the hut retains its daytime temperature, keeping the inhabitants warm.

The question of whether the re-appearance of huts in Africa and beyond is a positive development or a sign of Africans not letting go of their “primitive” past is indeed a question that can be debated.


SOUTH AFRICAN BURNT BRICKS IN Nigeria

The South African bricks does not require any form of polishing to gloss it or any superficial sealant as the brick material has attractive sheen on its own without adding any extra polish on it. 
South African brick tiles are veneer burnt bricks made from the fry ash technology of brick manufacturing, then sliced into thin brick tiles and thereafter fired in large hot kilns or ovens. Many builders and home owners in Nigeria make use of the South African brick tiles for both interior and exterior wall decorations where the bricks are cladded on the wall with adhesive mortars to give buildings aesthetic look and feel. Each piece of South African brick tile measures 220mm in length by 70mm in width with a thickness of about 9mm.

South African bricks are sometimes referred to as burnt bricks, burnt red bricks or fired bricks here in Nigeria. This is because of it's burnt feel and appearance. The final colors of the south African bricks depend on the type of iron pigment additive added to the fly ash mixture during the bricks manufacturing process. The colors of South African bricks in Nigeria include Shiraz which is very dark coffee brown, merlot which is also dark brown, duet, burnt jasper, ivory, satin and the rest are all lighter shades of south African bricks.

Many builders buy South African bricks in Nigeria usually because of the natural burnt feel it comes with and the resultant aesthetic look it yields on the building wall. This does not mean that using south African bricks is an automatic transfer of aesthetics on any building it is used on. You need to plan out the portions of the building where to lay the south African bricks for best effects.

PRICE OF SOUTH AFRICAN BRICKS IN NIGERIA

The price of South African bricks ranges from N6,200 per carton to N6,500 per carton where one carton gives one square meter of bricks when installed with a consistent gap of 12mm in between the bricks and each carton contains 50 to 52 pieces of individual brick tiles depending on how the company packages it from South African. The price of south African bricks given above does not include installation or transportation costs to your building site, brick installers in Lagos usually charge between N900 to N1,000 per square meter for brick installations or brick laying within Lagos per square meter.


Living in a thatched House

Advantages of living in a thatched House

Most thatched homes tend to be very old and this often means that they have large gardens and are built in excellent locations. The reason for this is that, due to their age, there were many good places to choose to build such properties. Often thatched properties are found near to a natural water supply and are on sheltered, slightly sloping land which gives good drainage and, thus, reduces problems with damp.

The thick straw or reed roofing provides excellent natural soundproofing from overhead aircraft as well as road traffic nearby. Likewise, it gives great insulation meaning that the thatched home remains cool in summer but warm in winter, helping to keep fuel costs low. The smaller windows that are normally to be found on such a property also contribute towards this insulating effect.

Due to their age, thatched houses usually have very thick, solid walls which are advantageous over modern cavity filled walls. In summer the heat from the outside travels very slowly to the inside ensuring that the temperature within remains cool.

The weatherproof thatch on the roof can withstand very strong, even gale force, winds and is very rarely prone to leaking. Leaks are usually caused by one of the wooden spars that are used in the ridge becoming broken and sometimes, after a spell of dry, warm weather the thatch may open slightly and then leak when it rains, however this is self-healing as the thatch will close again naturally.

Disadvantages of living in a thatched House

Due to their age and sometimes remote locations, not all thatched properties will be connected to a mains water or sewerage supply. Instead, water may be drawn from a nearby private or shared well, and either a cesspit or septic tank may be used for sewerage. Cesspits need frequent emptying, therefore a septic tank is preferable as they do not require as much attention as long as they are well below the ground level of the house and have good draining soil surrounding them. Also as a consequence of their remote location, thatched homes may not have any nearby street lighting and it may be necessary to install outside lights on the property.

Due to the old, solid walls and base and the lack of any damp proofing in such properties, the interior walls may suffer from damp caused by moisture rising from ground level.

In wet weather rain tends to cascade down the roof and falls in a constant stream around the entire perimeter of the house (it is unusual to find guttering on a thatched house) which continues for a time even after the rain has ceased. The rain splashing on to the ground can be the cause of mud spots forming on the exterior of the house and may cause green mould growth too. However, this is easily remedied by cleaning with a bleach solution.

The materials used in the thatch mean that the roof is at threat of attacks by birds that are nesting or are looking for insects. Holes may appear in the thatch and should be repaired as soon as possible as, left unrepaired, the birds will concentrate on these areas and the holes will become much larger. Most bird damage to roofs tends to be under the eaves or at the junction of the chimney and the roof. Some roofs have wire netting in these places to prevent this occurring, whilst others are completely covered by wire netting. Unfortunately, roofs that are totally covered by wire netting are often subject to higher insurance premiums as there will be the added difficulty of pulling the wire netting off in the event of a fire. This will delay the fire from being extinguished and result in more widespread fire damage.

Although thatched properties are no more likely to catch fire than regular homes, when a fire does break out the damage will be much more significant as fire spreads more rapidly in thatch. For this reason, insurance premiums will be higher. However as mentioned earlier, if you ask us at Highhouse insurance to quote for your thatched property , we will do our best to save you money.

It can be seen that whilst there are disadvantages of living in a thatched house, these are relatively minor and the advantages of living in such a charming and unique home may outweigh them.


Choosing Brick Wallpaper

Factors to Consider When Choosing Brick Wallpaper

Here are some few things you to need to pay attention to when selecting brick wallpaper for your interior design:

The very first thing that you will need to consider when selecting brick wallpapers for your interior design is your space. Depending on your preferences, you will need to go for the right wall so that your rooms can pop to their full potential. It is critical for you to consider the space so as to select the best possible location for your brick wallpaper application. This will help you tie the room together seamlessly.

Speaking of your space, another important thing that you need to consider is the layout of the room. If your room has a shape similar to that of a cone-head, it will be hard to erect a brick wallpaper. In addition to this, you should also take into consideration other pieces of art that might consume all space required for your wallpaper. In simple terms, if you are only able to see 15% of your brick wallpaper, is it worth having it on your wall?

  • What do you want to make standout

What do you want to achieve with your brick wallpaper interior design? Brick style wallpaper can be installed in a dining room so as to highlight a china filled armoire or wooden table. In your living, you can apply brick effect wallpaper so as to emphasize the look of your leather sofa and other décor pieces you have. Additionally, you could also install brick wallpaper so as to boost the look of your office or fireplace, at home.

To get the best possible appeal out of a brick wallpaper design, ensure that you install it on surfaces that are undisturbed by doors or windows. Also, note that different rooms require a different wallpaper design and style. For instance, a brick wallpaper bedroom design should be moisture-resistant while a kitchen wallpaper ought to be stainless and washable.


Brick Wallpaper

Benefits of Brick Wallpaper

There are numerous benefits that a brick wallpaper will have over a normal brick wall. A modern brick wallpaper is a fascinating alternative, which offers a similar emotional and physical connection. It can be referred to a transformational tool and a great step in interior design. Furthermore, with a contemporary brick wallpaper, the installation process is quite quick and easy. Due to this, you can end up saving a lot of labor and maintenance costs, plus other important resources.

Here are some other great advantages of having a brick wallpaper over any other kind of wall decoration.

  • Brick Wallpaper is Durable

Brick wallpaper is quite long lasting and can also withstand conditions in high traffic areas, and wear and tear from kids. While it might require some extra knowledge to apply perfectly, a good brick wallpaper is made to last for over 10 years.

  • It is Perfect for Hiding Imperfections

In case you want to hide imperfections in your wall such as when it is cracked, uneven, or damaged, brick wallpaper can be of great benefit to you. Brick wallpaper is able to go several steps further than any other wallpaper due to its great ability to disguise flaws. Therefore, erecting a brick wallpaper can consume lesser time and resources than having to fix all imperfections on your wall.


Brick Wallpaper

Why Brick Wallpaper

Before we look at anything else in regards to brick wallpaper, let us first have a look at why you should use these kinds of wallpapers in the first place. A brick wallpaper features a transforming texture, a structured charm, and effortless elegance. These factors make brick wallpapers alluring and timeless, some good reasons why you should use brick wallpaper.


Brick wallpaper the new water

Adding brick wallpaper is the best interior design you can do to your house. You can add the wallpaper to all the four walls of your room or have one feature wall, which will have the different brick wallpaper designs. Brick wall wallpaper has been properly developed to become an authentic charm, which is now been witnessed in inner-city apartments and also rural cottages. This is so because brick style wallpaper complements both modern and traditional furniture perfectly. Due to this, brick wallpaper is the ideal choice when looking for an interior design guaranteed to be the talking point amongst your guests.