Limult Cassava Processing Factory

Building, structure and condition of plant

  • The building to house cassava products may be constructed from concrete or bricks and should provide adequate protection against insects and rodents.
  • The building should contain a processing hall, an office, a changing room, toilet, ware- housing, and a free lobby.
  • For a medium-scale plant, the factory walls could be built to the window level and completed with expanded metal covered with wire mesh to cut down on costs.
  • Fixed surfaces of the infrastructure, such as washing troughs and steeping tanks, that come into contact with the processing materials, should have easy-to-clean internal surfaces and be inert to cassava products.
  • The surface of walls, partitions, and floors should be made of impervious materials with no toxic effect in intended use and have a smooth surface up to a height appropriate to the operation.
  • The floor should be constructed with concrete or terrazzo (if affordable), have adequate surface drainage and be easy to sweep and wash.
  • Ceilings and overhead fixtures should be constructed and finished to minimize the build up of dirt and condensation, and the shredding of particles
  • Windows should be easy to clean, and fitted with removable and cleanable insect-proof screens.
  • Doors should be smooth, non absorbent, and easy to clean and disinfect.
  • Adequate means of natural or mechanical ventilation should be provided to minimize airborne contamination, control ambient temperature, odors, and humidity.
  • Lighting fixtures should, where appropriate, be protected to ensure that food is not contaminated by breakages.
  • An adequate supply of potable water with appropriate facilities for its storage and distribution, should be available, whenever necessary, to ensure the safety and suitability of food.

Process control

Equipment must be designed to dry, fry, cool or store food to achieve the required food temperature as rapidly as necessary in the interests of food safety and suitability, and to maintain them effectively.

Equipment is designed to allow temperatures to be monitored and controlled. Where necessary, equipment should have effective means of controlling and monitoring humidity, airflow, and other characteristics likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and suitability of food.

These requirements will ensure that:

  • Harmful (cyanide or butanoic acid) or undesirable micro-organisms or their toxins (mycotoxins), are eliminated or reduced to safe levels or their survival and growth are effectively controlled.
  • Where appropriate, critical limits established in plans based on Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) can be monitored.
  • Temperatures and other conditions necessary to food safety and suitability can be rapidly achieved and maintained.

Facilities for personnel and personal hygiene
Facilities should be available to ensure that an appropriate degree of personal hygiene can be maintained and to avoid contaminating food. Where appropriate, the facilities should include:

  • Adequate means of hygienically washing and drying hands, including wash basins, and a supply of hot and cold water.
  • Lavatories of an appropriate hygienic design.
  • Adequate changing facilities for personnel.

Such facilities should be suitably located and designated. Facilities for cleaning such as hoses should be provided for cleaning the washing trough, hydraulic press, hammer mill, dryer, steeping tanks, other equipment, and the floor. Taps should be installed at the tops of the washing trough and steeping tanks. Also outlets such as stoppers for easy draining at the top and base of each facility should be installed.

People who come directly or indirectly into contact with food will not be likely to contaminate food by:

  • Maintaining an appropriate degree of personal cleanliness.
  • Behaving and operating in an appropriate manner.
    Note: Workers who are ill, and especially if suffering from diarrhoea or skin infections, should not under any circumstances be allowed to handle food.

Visitors to the food manufacturing, processing, or handling areas should, where appropriate, wear protective clothing and follow the other personal hygiene provisions in this section.

A changing room should be provided for staff to change into factory coats.The use of factory coats will minimize the introduction of undesirable micro-organisms from soil and dust carried on the clothing of staff when they report to work.

Drainage and waste disposal

Adequate drainage and waste disposal systems and facilities should be provided. They should be designed and constructed to avoid any risk of contaminating food or the potable water supply.
Storage facilities

Adequate facilities should be provided for the storage of food, ingredients and non food chemicals (e.g, cleaning materials, lubricants, fuels).Where appropriate, food storage facilities should be designed and constructed to:

  • Permit adequate maintenance and cleaning.
  • Avoid pests and harbourage.
  • Enable food to be effectively protected from contamination during storage.

Where necessary, provide an environment which minimizes the deterioration of food (e.g. by temperature and humidity control).

Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Laterite for Road Construction

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminum and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The term ‘Laterite’ appeared in academic literature over a century ago. Buchanan (1807) first used this term to denote a building material in the mountainous region of Malabar, India (Maignien, 1966). The term ‘Laterite’ could mean brick earth in some local dialects but the name ‘latérite’ got its meaning from a Latin word later, meaning ‘brick’ and so relating solely to the use of these soils in block making (Prescott and Pendleton, 1952 in Gidigasu, 1974). There have been so many arguments,

Characterisation of laterite for road construction

Lateritic soils exist in many places in tropical regions of Africa and America. They are frequently used for road construction. It is important to use them in an optimized way and attempts are made to improve their description and characterization for road applications. Laboratory work done in Brazil, Senegal and France was aimed at including specific properties of laterites in their classification, especially the degradability of their gravelly and sandy fractions due to weathering and compaction during construction works. The paper presents results of laboratory tests, which highlight the importance of particle size reduction due to compaction and its variability. The link between the grain sizes of raw laterites and those of the same laterite after compaction should be further studied, in order to help the road designer in tropical and equatorial countries.

Structure, Composition and Properties of Lateritic Soils

Laterites vary greatly in structure, but can be reduced to the following three structural patterns:

(a) The indurated elements form a continuous, coherent skeleton;

(b) The indurated elements are free concretions or nodules in an earthy matrix;

(c) The indurated elements cement pre-existing materials. These structural patterns exhibit great variability in relation to the shape and size of the elements involved and the degree of induration. The degree of hardness ranges from products that are practically unconsolidated and scarcely coherent to the hardest blocks which can be broken only with a hammer. Induration is an empirical criterion, as it is impossible to give quantitative expressions to any character related to the mechanical properties of the material. The usual definition of induration is a state in which the hard brittle consistency of the medium is not affected by humidity. Induration, which involves the precipitation of goethite in a reticular network, is influenced by composition and the extent of crystallization of the components in the soil: the higher the sesqui oxide content, the greater the induration. In other words, hardness increases as the iron content increases; the hardest laterites are also the least hydrated.

Laterites vary in color, but are usually brightly colored. The shades most frequently encountered are pink, ochre, red and brown; however, some occurrences are mottled and streaked with violet, and others exhibit green marbling. A single sample may exhibit a whole range of colors merging more or less perceptibly into one another in a variety of patterns and forms. Laterites owe their color to iron oxides in various states of hydration and sometimes also to manganese. Their mineralogy generally involves quartz, kaolinite, hematite, goethite, and sometime maghemite. Kaolinite is always present with iron oxides. The physical properties of lateritic soil vary according to the mineralogical composition and particle size distribution of the soil. The granulometry can vary from very fine to gravel according to its origin, thus influencing geotechnical properties such as plasticity and compressive strength. One of the main advantages of lateritic material is that it does not readily swell with water. This makes it an excellent packing material particularly when it is not too sandy.

Improving Lateritic Soils for Construction Purposes

Stabilization processes are very complex because many parameters come into play. The knowledge of soil properties can help to better consider what changes, the economic studies (cost and time), as well as production and construction techniques to use. The simplest process consists of taking soil and drying it in open-air. It is the ―pise technique, rammed earth, adobe, and brick dried in the sun, widely used in the majority of African countries. More elaborate processes can include heat treatment, or mixing soil with ordinary Portland cement, lime, etc.

Limult Group sells quality Laterite for road constructions_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Survey Plans

A land survey represents pictorially the legal boundaries and dimensions of a surveyed parcel of land. It identifies the type and location of monuments or survey posts set in the ground to define the boundaries of the parcel. Some types of survey plans are subdivision plan, reference plan, posting plan, air space plan or strata plan.

Survey plans are prepared by professional Limult land surveyors for filing in a land title office. Many historical survey plans are available only in hardcopy format.

A plan is a technical and legal document prepared by a registered cadastral surveyor.

A plan is considered current until a new survey has been conducted and registered for the subject lot, and a new title issued. The certificate for each lot in Limult refers to the current survey plan. A plan may be the current plan for some of the lots shown on the plan, but other lots may have been cancelled by a newer plan. This may mean that a current plan of a lot could be from the 1900s, whereas the current plan for a nearby lot may be either newer or older.

A survey plan does not include building location unless the property is a building unit. For more information on buildings, contact the relevant local government.

Survey plans do not contain land contours. A registered surveyor can create these plans for you.

A current plan of a lot may not show easements, leases or covenants as such interests may have been created by a different survey plan.

Reading a survey plan

A survey plan will include bearings, distances and area for all parcels covered by the survey plan. Sometimes the measurements for an individual parcel are not included. This occurs where the dimensions of one parcel are the same as the adjacent lots (e.g. if lots 1 to 20 are all the same size, the dimensions may only be shown on lot 1).

A survey plan does not include the measurements from the kerb to the property boundary.

Depending on when the survey was conducted, the information recorded on the plan may vary.

For example:

  • Some older plans may include roman numerals, notes and annotations, or the word 'road' when the road had not been named at the time of survey.
  • A survey plan may also include old street names.
  • Historical survey plans may include county prefixes and prefix abbreviations.
  • Depending on the age of a plan, dimensions may be recorded in a number of formats and you may need to convert from imperial to metric.

Contact us

If you need a survey plans service or you have questions about survey plans, Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Plaster Sand

Plaster Sand not only can be used to make plaster but it can also be used in a cement/sand/gravel mix to make concrete. Use Plaster Sand to set pavers, or fill in holes and low spots in your lawn.

Plastering is one of the most ancient building techniques. Evidence indicates that primitive peoples plastered their reed or sapling shelters with mud, thus developing more durable structures and more effective screens against vermin and inclement weather. More lasting and slightly materials in time replaced mud. Some of the earliest plastering extant is of a quality comparable to that used in modern times. The pyramids of Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least 4,000 years ago that is still hard and durable. The principal tools of the plasterer of that time were in design and purpose like those used today. For their finest work the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsum that is identical to plaster of Paris.

Plaster as a medium of artistic expression waned by the 19th century, when imitation and mechanical reproduction displaced this creative art. However, as a surface material for interior walls and ceilings and to a lesser degree for exterior walls, plaster remains in common use. It facilitates cleanliness and sanitation in building and is a retardant to the spread of fire.

which sand is best for plastering?

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It provides the structure of plaster, and the quality of your sand can make the difference between success and failure.

Basically river sand are used for any plastering work. Generally, in any plastering work plasterers are used natural sand, crushed stone sand or crushed gravel sand. Though, there is a grading limit of sand which are used in plastering work. Other types of sand will also work, but it could be more expensive to use.

Limult Group sells quality plaster sand for strong housing construction_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Engine Oil

The most essential thing that is used in a car service is the engine oil. The engine oil is the main lubricant that plays a vital role in the combustion cycle. Let’s have a look at all the things that this wonder liquid does to ease our drive:

  1. Engine oil reduces the friction among the parts of the engine at the various stages of the combustion cycle reducing the wear and tear of the internal parts of the engine.
  2. Engine oil performs the vital role of cleaning the sludge from the engine block which would otherwise result in a possible blockage.
  3. Engine oil helps neutralise the acids that are released at any stage of the combustion process from the fuel and oxidation of other lubricants.
  4. Engine oils also have anti-corrosion abilities which prevent the cylinder block from getting corroded.

So now we know that the engine oil is a vital element for our engine because it performs so many functions but do you know all engines can’t work with the same engine oil?
Yes, different engines require different engine oils to function and operate normally. The engine oils are recommended by car manufacturers based on some parameters of your car.

You ought to know the grade of engine oil being put inside your car to yield the best performance along with a healthy life span.

What are engine oil grades?

Engine oils have got different grades which are differentiated on the basis of their viscosities. Viscosity is the quantity expressing the internal friction of the fluid. Different engine oils have different viscosities at room temperature and also react differently to temperature changes. Selecting an engine oil grade for your car depends upon your car’s engine and also the place you are driving in.

What does 20W-40 mean in engine oil?

The engine oil grade consists of 4 characters. Here we explain the meaning of each of them:

  • The first number is followed by a ‘W’. Here the W stands for Winter and represents how the oil will react to a cold start.
  • In simple words, the number with the W represents the parameter of how the oil will flow in cold conditions.
  • The smaller the number, the better will be the flow. For instance, a 5W-30 oil will have a better cold flow than 10W-30 engine oil.
  • The number in the following part is the indication of how the finely the oil will flow at normal operating temperature once it is achieved.
  • The 10W-30 engine oil will have a better flow than the 10W-40 engine oil at normal operating temperature.

Let’s take a look at the engine oil grades available globally:

  1. 0W-20 The 0W-20 oil is engineered to behave as a 0 weight oil at the starting temperature and a 20 weight oil when the engine will reach its normal operating temperature.
  2. 0W-30 The 0W-30 oil is engineered to behave as a 0 weight oil at the starting temperature and a 30 weight oil when the engine will reach its normal operating temperature.
  3. 0W-40 The 0W-40 oil is engineered to behave as a 0 weight oil at the starting temperature and a 20 weight oil when the engine will reach its normal operating temperature.
  4. 5W-30 5W-30 is the most commonly available end most extensively used engine oil in the Indian market. Most of the Indian car manufacturers recommend this.
  5. 5W-40 5W-40 is the fully synthetic engine oil which performs like a 5 weight engine oil when experiencing a cold start and 40 weight oil once the engine reaches normal operating temperature.
  6. 10W-40 10W-40 is the engine oil which offers a 10Weight performance in the cold starting temperature and 40 weight performance at the normal operating temperature of the engine.

Types of engine oils

Before you go ahead and purchase any engine oil, the first step you should know is, what type of oil your hatchback, sedan or SUV requires. It is essential to understand what goes into your car, as this is the deciding factor which ensures that the engine runs smooth, slick and efficient.

In general, there are three types of engine oil:

Mineral Engine Oil

The crudest form of engine oil. Mineral Engine oil is considered as the genesis that paved the way for modern engine oils. Mineral oils are refined petroleum oils which undergo treatment to function under a wide temperature range and are marketed significantly cheaper compared to the other two varieties of oils.

Nowadays, Mineral oils find their use in older vehicles and motorcycles.

The biggest drawback with mineral oil is that they offer little to no lubrication and protection against friction-induced heat. Also, they perform very inefficiently in colder temperatures and are more susceptible to breakdown during high-temperature uses.

Mineral oil also requires more frequent replacement as they last not more than 5000 kms.

Semi-Synthetic Engine Oil

This is one diplomatic engine oil. It positions itself right in between the territory of Mineral and Full Synthetic oil. As easy to say, Semi-Synthetic oil is a combination which offers the affordability of mineral and the performance of synthetic.
Semi-synthetic offer as much as three times the protection compared to mineral oils.

Semi-synthetic oil, also known as synthetic blend oil has a small amount of synthetic engine oil blended in with mineral oil to boost its properties without escalating the cost by much. The addition of synthetic oil enhances its viscosity and wear resistance at higher temperatures and stress. Synthetic-blend engine oils can also offer better performance at lower temperatures compared to mineral oils.

The thumbs down with semi-synthetic is that they do not offer the superior level of protection that a full synthetic does

Full Synthetic Engine Oil

The bleeding edge in engine oil technology. Full synthetic engine oil delivers excellent protection and aides in better fuel efficiency.

Synthetic oils go through extensive treatment in the lab to make them significantly superior to their counterparts. The process involves breaking down the mineral oil into the most basic molecules, which helps remove any undesired substances and impurities to a very high degree. The molecules of synthetic oil are also very consistent in their size and shape, offering superior lubrication. Full synthetic oil function at their optimum in both low or high temperatures, or under extraordinary stress.

The science behind manufacturing synthetic engine oil is an expensive and painstaking one, which makes synthetic oils significantly costly which is its only drawback.

Do you need best quality engine oil? Limult oil is what you need. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


LIMULT KEROSENE

A REVIEW OF HOUSEHOLD USES AND THEIR HAZARDS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

Kerosene is a flammable liquid mixture of chemicals that are produced in the distillation of crude oil. To produce kerosene, crude oil is distilled in a distillation tower in a process similar to that used to produce diesel and gasoline. It is a medium weight distillate in the refining process, and can be produced by distilling crude oil (here it is known as straight run kerosene) or by hydrocarbon cracking heavier petroleum (here it is known as cracked kerosene). The chemical composition of kerosene is fairly complex, and it is a complex mixture of paraffins (55.2%), naphthenes (40.9%), and aromatic hydrocarbons (3.9%). Kerosene tends to contain hydrocarbons that have anywhere from 11 to 13 carbons in the chains. Liquid kerosene fuels contain potentially harmful compounds, including hexane and benzene.

Since the mid-19th century, when it replaced the more expensive whale oil as a lighting fuel, kerosene (synonyms: kerosene, paraffin, paraffin oil, fuel oil no. 1, lamp oil) has become a major household, commercial, and industrial fuel. “Kerosene” started as a brand name but was later adopted (with a small “k”) as a general descriptor. In the first half of the 20th century, the prevalence of household kerosene lighting greatly reduced as electrification and availability of gas fuels spread, particularly in developed countries. However, in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still rely on kerosene or other liquid fuels for lighting, corresponding to 7.6 billion liters consumed annually.

Produced originally from coal (“coal oil”), but later from the fractional distillation of petroleum oil, kerosene is a transparent liquid fuel with a mixture of hydrocarbon chains 6 to 16 carbon atoms in length. Although kerosene has numerous commercial and industrial applications (e.g., aviation fuel, general solvent), the focus of this article is on household uses, for cooking, heating, and lighting, in low- and middle-income countries. These lead to the most widespread exposures to kerosene and its combustion products.

Kerosene is commonly used in countries where solid fuels—biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal—are major household energy sources, often burned indoors without chimneys or smoke hoods.

Kerosene is sometimes advocated as an alternative cleaner fuel for cooking and is often used for lighting where electricity is not available. Some countries, such as India and Nepal, subsidize its retail price to stabilize in-country prices and make it affordable to the poor. However, there is substantial black market diversion of subsidized kerosene, as it mixes easily with the often more expensive diesel fuel, and it is often sold illegally in surrounding countries that do not subsidize it.

Uses

Kerosene is a major component of aviation fuel, making up more than 60% of the fuel. In addition, it can be used as an oil in central heating systems and can be used as a cleaning agent. Although the use of kerosene in many places has decreased over the years as a result of improved access to electricity  and natural gas, it is still used extensively in the developing world for cooking, heating, and lighting. Kerosene cooking is extensive in developing countries, especially among urban populations. Kerosene is often seen as a good alternative to solid fuels, biomass, and coal and thus kerosene lanterns are used in places where access to electricity is not available. It is estimated that globally 500 million households use fuels such as kerosene for lighting.

Health Risks

The use of kerosene as an oil in heaters can be dangerous and because of that it is not used frequently. When operating, kerosene heaters can cause degradation of air quality inside a home while producing toxic and carcinogenic gases. Because of this, kerosene is not actively used in home heating in most developed countries.

In developing countries, the widespread use of kerosene comes with numerous different issues. Hazards of kerosene use include poisoning, fires, and explosions. As well, some kerosene lamps emit fine particulates, carbon monoxide, nitric oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide when burned. These by-products may reduce lung function and increase risks of asthma and cancer. Although kerosene is still a safer option in many cases than using solid fuels.

Justifiably, pollution from solid fuels has provoked efforts to find alternative energy sources or ways of burning biomass more cleanly. Least polluting alternatives at the household level are solar power and electricity. Gaseous fuels, which burn with higher combustion efficiency are the cooking fuels of choice in most countries. Biogas made from anaerobic digestion of animal dung is used where conditions are suitable.

Limult Group sells kerosene for your home needs thus providing for the nations. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.