Limult Railway Development

In most of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries railways have played, throughout history, a key part in the economic development maintaining a dominant role in transporting freight and passengers at low costs. During the last 50 years, the road transport in the region as throughout the world has expanded rapidly due to the aggressive development of the automobile industry. African governments have invested mainly in road infrastructure improvement, neglecting railways. The liberalization in road transport and the slow response of railways to adapt to the new market conditions resulted in dramatic traffic decline in rail transport. By 1990 most of the Sub-Saharan African railways were in virtual bankruptcy, requiring permanent cash injection and large investments in infrastructure and rolling stock. To address the crisis, many governments have considered concessions as a solution, and between the mid-1990s and 2010 most of the railways were concessioned. Currently, more than 70 percent of the rail transport activities in the region (excluding South Africa) are managed by private operators. The World Bank Group (IDA and IFC) has supported most concession processes through grants and loans, investing since 1996 more than one billion dollars to support the efforts of the governments and private operators. The recommendations suggested in the present document are based on a comprehensive approach for improving the performance of the railway sector in parallel with the enhancement of the governance of the transport sector. The rhythm of implementation of such a complex set of recommendations may vary from country to country depending on local conditions and will require, in any case, a long period of time. Nevertheless, the dramatic status of the railway transport sector in SSA requires rapid actions. In this respect, the present work includes a selected list of most urgent recommendations to be implemented in the first stage. The way ahead for improving the performance of railways in Sub-Saharan Africa is a complex endeavor that cannot be achieved without the strong involvement of the private sector.

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Limult Cassava Processing Factory

Building, structure and condition of plant

  • The building to house cassava products may be constructed from concrete or bricks and should provide adequate protection against insects and rodents.
  • The building should contain a processing hall, an office, a changing room, toilet, ware- housing, and a free lobby.
  • For a medium-scale plant, the factory walls could be built to the window level and completed with expanded metal covered with wire mesh to cut down on costs.
  • Fixed surfaces of the infrastructure, such as washing troughs and steeping tanks, that come into contact with the processing materials, should have easy-to-clean internal surfaces and be inert to cassava products.
  • The surface of walls, partitions, and floors should be made of impervious materials with no toxic effect in intended use and have a smooth surface up to a height appropriate to the operation.
  • The floor should be constructed with concrete or terrazzo (if affordable), have adequate surface drainage and be easy to sweep and wash.
  • Ceilings and overhead fixtures should be constructed and finished to minimize the build up of dirt and condensation, and the shredding of particles
  • Windows should be easy to clean, and fitted with removable and cleanable insect-proof screens.
  • Doors should be smooth, non absorbent, and easy to clean and disinfect.
  • Adequate means of natural or mechanical ventilation should be provided to minimize airborne contamination, control ambient temperature, odors, and humidity.
  • Lighting fixtures should, where appropriate, be protected to ensure that food is not contaminated by breakages.
  • An adequate supply of potable water with appropriate facilities for its storage and distribution, should be available, whenever necessary, to ensure the safety and suitability of food.

Process control

Equipment must be designed to dry, fry, cool or store food to achieve the required food temperature as rapidly as necessary in the interests of food safety and suitability, and to maintain them effectively.

Equipment is designed to allow temperatures to be monitored and controlled. Where necessary, equipment should have effective means of controlling and monitoring humidity, airflow, and other characteristics likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and suitability of food.

These requirements will ensure that:

  • Harmful (cyanide or butanoic acid) or undesirable micro-organisms or their toxins (mycotoxins), are eliminated or reduced to safe levels or their survival and growth are effectively controlled.
  • Where appropriate, critical limits established in plans based on Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) can be monitored.
  • Temperatures and other conditions necessary to food safety and suitability can be rapidly achieved and maintained.

Facilities for personnel and personal hygiene
Facilities should be available to ensure that an appropriate degree of personal hygiene can be maintained and to avoid contaminating food. Where appropriate, the facilities should include:

  • Adequate means of hygienically washing and drying hands, including wash basins, and a supply of hot and cold water.
  • Lavatories of an appropriate hygienic design.
  • Adequate changing facilities for personnel.

Such facilities should be suitably located and designated. Facilities for cleaning such as hoses should be provided for cleaning the washing trough, hydraulic press, hammer mill, dryer, steeping tanks, other equipment, and the floor. Taps should be installed at the tops of the washing trough and steeping tanks. Also outlets such as stoppers for easy draining at the top and base of each facility should be installed.

People who come directly or indirectly into contact with food will not be likely to contaminate food by:

  • Maintaining an appropriate degree of personal cleanliness.
  • Behaving and operating in an appropriate manner.
    Note: Workers who are ill, and especially if suffering from diarrhoea or skin infections, should not under any circumstances be allowed to handle food.

Visitors to the food manufacturing, processing, or handling areas should, where appropriate, wear protective clothing and follow the other personal hygiene provisions in this section.

A changing room should be provided for staff to change into factory coats.The use of factory coats will minimize the introduction of undesirable micro-organisms from soil and dust carried on the clothing of staff when they report to work.

Drainage and waste disposal

Adequate drainage and waste disposal systems and facilities should be provided. They should be designed and constructed to avoid any risk of contaminating food or the potable water supply.
Storage facilities

Adequate facilities should be provided for the storage of food, ingredients and non food chemicals (e.g, cleaning materials, lubricants, fuels).Where appropriate, food storage facilities should be designed and constructed to:

  • Permit adequate maintenance and cleaning.
  • Avoid pests and harbourage.
  • Enable food to be effectively protected from contamination during storage.

Where necessary, provide an environment which minimizes the deterioration of food (e.g. by temperature and humidity control).

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Limult Mini-industry construction for community development

WHY CONSTRUCTION AND LAND DEVELOPMENT ARE IMPORTANT FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

We can all agree that land development is essential for a community’s success.  While development can sometimes be frowned upon, as it changes the face of the landscape, creates more traffic, changes ecosystems and habitats, it is imperative for the prosperity of your community.  It can generate more jobs, bring desired curb appeal, unite community members, and maintain or increase home values.  Whether the development is residential or commercial, construction brings economic stability.  Finding a balance between growth and maintaining the character of your community is key to the planning of development, as well as, weighing the pros and cons.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Construction and land development can create added waste to our landfills and not all materials are environmentally friendly.  In metropolitan or urban areas that are highly populated and built up, a heat island effect can occur.  Thus, making it warmer in these areas than rural areas due to the volume of energy being consumed.  Land Development can change ecosystems and force wildlife to relocate.  At the same time, land development can have a positive impact on our environment.  Governing entities may require developers to bring buildings up to current code or clean up contaminated sites from a previous business.  Site cleanup is costly, but it brings added value to our environment.  Incentives are sometimes offered for using sustainable materials or building Green or a LEED certified structure.  Oftentimes developers will clear out invasive/non-native trees and replace them with native trees.

INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Some townships/cities will require the developer to make improvements to infrastructure.  This might include, enhancing the road condition, replacing old water or sewer pipes, installing sidewalks, adding additional landscaping and increasing the number of public parking spaces.  Holding developers accountable for community improvements removes some of the financial burdens your city/township can endure.

ECONOMIC/SOCIAL IMPACT

When you see businesses expanding, new commercial buildings being constructed, new neighborhoods being built and existing homes being renovated, it signifies a growing community.  Growth can present challenges, however, it is a necessity for the prosperity of your city.   Construction has a direct impact on our economy, as it creates jobs.  Construction also has a trickle-down effect on industries, other than its own.  Commercial and residential construction stimulates growth in retail, real estate, equipment, manufacturing plants, schools, and tourism, to name a few.  Even though to community members, construction and development can seem invasive and unnecessary, it is vital for your economy.

You can reach out to Limult Group For your housing and construction Project. you can also visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Property Value

What is property value?

Property value refers to the worth of a piece of real estate based on the price that a buyer and seller agree upon. According to economic theory, the value of a property converges at the point where the forces of supply meet the forces of demand. In other words, the value of a property at any given time is determined by what the market will bear.

Property value example

The value of your property matters in terms of how much you will be able to sell it for, but there are other issues to consider. Property value impacts:

  • Your ability to refinance your mortgage or take out a line-of-credit, using your property as collateral.
  • Property taxes, pushing them higher or lower.
  • The overall value of your neighborhood.

Economic Factors Affecting Property Value

If the house down the street sold for a price that is higher than your CMA suggests, take a look at the mortgage market. Have interest rates risen since that sale, slowing down sales? . Is employment looking bright for the immediate future and are new companies moving in? Then property values will increase. Staying abreast of the economic indicators for your area helps explain your property's changing value.

Other Valuations, Other Purposes

A lender's appraisal carries weight when establishing a property's value. If the appraisal comes in below what a buyer is willing to pay, negotiations as to who makes up the difference can send a deal down the tubes. Lender appraisals delve deeper into the analysis of the property than a CMA, and the more recent the sale the more weight that sale price carries when arriving at a value.

A property assessor's appraisal is done to establish a tax base for the property and should not be used to establish a property's value. Most assessors' appraisals contain deductions for homesteading, tax benefits pertaining to the community, age benefits and other factors that lower the evaluation.

Are you thinking of purchasing or selling a property? feel free to contact Limult Group on +2347052446249 or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available


Limult Laterite for Road Construction

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminum and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The term ‘Laterite’ appeared in academic literature over a century ago. Buchanan (1807) first used this term to denote a building material in the mountainous region of Malabar, India (Maignien, 1966). The term ‘Laterite’ could mean brick earth in some local dialects but the name ‘latérite’ got its meaning from a Latin word later, meaning ‘brick’ and so relating solely to the use of these soils in block making (Prescott and Pendleton, 1952 in Gidigasu, 1974). There have been so many arguments,

Characterisation of laterite for road construction

Lateritic soils exist in many places in tropical regions of Africa and America. They are frequently used for road construction. It is important to use them in an optimized way and attempts are made to improve their description and characterization for road applications. Laboratory work done in Brazil, Senegal and France was aimed at including specific properties of laterites in their classification, especially the degradability of their gravelly and sandy fractions due to weathering and compaction during construction works. The paper presents results of laboratory tests, which highlight the importance of particle size reduction due to compaction and its variability. The link between the grain sizes of raw laterites and those of the same laterite after compaction should be further studied, in order to help the road designer in tropical and equatorial countries.

Structure, Composition and Properties of Lateritic Soils

Laterites vary greatly in structure, but can be reduced to the following three structural patterns:

(a) The indurated elements form a continuous, coherent skeleton;

(b) The indurated elements are free concretions or nodules in an earthy matrix;

(c) The indurated elements cement pre-existing materials. These structural patterns exhibit great variability in relation to the shape and size of the elements involved and the degree of induration. The degree of hardness ranges from products that are practically unconsolidated and scarcely coherent to the hardest blocks which can be broken only with a hammer. Induration is an empirical criterion, as it is impossible to give quantitative expressions to any character related to the mechanical properties of the material. The usual definition of induration is a state in which the hard brittle consistency of the medium is not affected by humidity. Induration, which involves the precipitation of goethite in a reticular network, is influenced by composition and the extent of crystallization of the components in the soil: the higher the sesqui oxide content, the greater the induration. In other words, hardness increases as the iron content increases; the hardest laterites are also the least hydrated.

Laterites vary in color, but are usually brightly colored. The shades most frequently encountered are pink, ochre, red and brown; however, some occurrences are mottled and streaked with violet, and others exhibit green marbling. A single sample may exhibit a whole range of colors merging more or less perceptibly into one another in a variety of patterns and forms. Laterites owe their color to iron oxides in various states of hydration and sometimes also to manganese. Their mineralogy generally involves quartz, kaolinite, hematite, goethite, and sometime maghemite. Kaolinite is always present with iron oxides. The physical properties of lateritic soil vary according to the mineralogical composition and particle size distribution of the soil. The granulometry can vary from very fine to gravel according to its origin, thus influencing geotechnical properties such as plasticity and compressive strength. One of the main advantages of lateritic material is that it does not readily swell with water. This makes it an excellent packing material particularly when it is not too sandy.

Improving Lateritic Soils for Construction Purposes

Stabilization processes are very complex because many parameters come into play. The knowledge of soil properties can help to better consider what changes, the economic studies (cost and time), as well as production and construction techniques to use. The simplest process consists of taking soil and drying it in open-air. It is the ―pise technique, rammed earth, adobe, and brick dried in the sun, widely used in the majority of African countries. More elaborate processes can include heat treatment, or mixing soil with ordinary Portland cement, lime, etc.

Limult Group sells quality Laterite for road constructions_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Survey Plans

A land survey represents pictorially the legal boundaries and dimensions of a surveyed parcel of land. It identifies the type and location of monuments or survey posts set in the ground to define the boundaries of the parcel. Some types of survey plans are subdivision plan, reference plan, posting plan, air space plan or strata plan.

Survey plans are prepared by professional Limult land surveyors for filing in a land title office. Many historical survey plans are available only in hardcopy format.

A plan is a technical and legal document prepared by a registered cadastral surveyor.

A plan is considered current until a new survey has been conducted and registered for the subject lot, and a new title issued. The certificate for each lot in Limult refers to the current survey plan. A plan may be the current plan for some of the lots shown on the plan, but other lots may have been cancelled by a newer plan. This may mean that a current plan of a lot could be from the 1900s, whereas the current plan for a nearby lot may be either newer or older.

A survey plan does not include building location unless the property is a building unit. For more information on buildings, contact the relevant local government.

Survey plans do not contain land contours. A registered surveyor can create these plans for you.

A current plan of a lot may not show easements, leases or covenants as such interests may have been created by a different survey plan.

Reading a survey plan

A survey plan will include bearings, distances and area for all parcels covered by the survey plan. Sometimes the measurements for an individual parcel are not included. This occurs where the dimensions of one parcel are the same as the adjacent lots (e.g. if lots 1 to 20 are all the same size, the dimensions may only be shown on lot 1).

A survey plan does not include the measurements from the kerb to the property boundary.

Depending on when the survey was conducted, the information recorded on the plan may vary.

For example:

  • Some older plans may include roman numerals, notes and annotations, or the word 'road' when the road had not been named at the time of survey.
  • A survey plan may also include old street names.
  • Historical survey plans may include county prefixes and prefix abbreviations.
  • Depending on the age of a plan, dimensions may be recorded in a number of formats and you may need to convert from imperial to metric.

Contact us

If you need a survey plans service or you have questions about survey plans, Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.