Borehole construction and drilling techniques are reviewed focusing on the appropriateness of different methods for various aquifer characterization scenarios. The drilling method and well construction selected for an aquifer characterization program should be based on consideration of the type of testing to be performed, borehole conditions required for testing, formation conditions (borehole stability), formation sample requirements, well depth, water quality, planned use of the well after the completion of the program, local driller capabilities and expertise, drilling fluid disposal, local regulations, and cost.

 A key factor dictating drilling and formation sampling methods is whether or not a borehole is stable (i.e., penetrated strata are nitrified or sufficiently cohesive). Wells should be designed, constructed, and developed to maximize well efficiency, particularly if they are to be used as production wells or for single-well hydraulic testing (e.g., slug testing).

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