Limult Laterite for Road Construction

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminum and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The term ‘Laterite’ appeared in academic literature over a century ago. Buchanan (1807) first used this term to denote a building material in the mountainous region of Malabar, India (Maignien, 1966). The term ‘Laterite’ could mean brick earth in some local dialects but the name ‘latérite’ got its meaning from a Latin word later, meaning ‘brick’ and so relating solely to the use of these soils in block making (Prescott and Pendleton, 1952 in Gidigasu, 1974). There have been so many arguments,

Characterisation of laterite for road construction

Lateritic soils exist in many places in tropical regions of Africa and America. They are frequently used for road construction. It is important to use them in an optimized way and attempts are made to improve their description and characterization for road applications. Laboratory work done in Brazil, Senegal and France was aimed at including specific properties of laterites in their classification, especially the degradability of their gravelly and sandy fractions due to weathering and compaction during construction works. The paper presents results of laboratory tests, which highlight the importance of particle size reduction due to compaction and its variability. The link between the grain sizes of raw laterites and those of the same laterite after compaction should be further studied, in order to help the road designer in tropical and equatorial countries.

Structure, Composition and Properties of Lateritic Soils

Laterites vary greatly in structure, but can be reduced to the following three structural patterns:

(a) The indurated elements form a continuous, coherent skeleton;

(b) The indurated elements are free concretions or nodules in an earthy matrix;

(c) The indurated elements cement pre-existing materials. These structural patterns exhibit great variability in relation to the shape and size of the elements involved and the degree of induration. The degree of hardness ranges from products that are practically unconsolidated and scarcely coherent to the hardest blocks which can be broken only with a hammer. Induration is an empirical criterion, as it is impossible to give quantitative expressions to any character related to the mechanical properties of the material. The usual definition of induration is a state in which the hard brittle consistency of the medium is not affected by humidity. Induration, which involves the precipitation of goethite in a reticular network, is influenced by composition and the extent of crystallization of the components in the soil: the higher the sesqui oxide content, the greater the induration. In other words, hardness increases as the iron content increases; the hardest laterites are also the least hydrated.

Laterites vary in color, but are usually brightly colored. The shades most frequently encountered are pink, ochre, red and brown; however, some occurrences are mottled and streaked with violet, and others exhibit green marbling. A single sample may exhibit a whole range of colors merging more or less perceptibly into one another in a variety of patterns and forms. Laterites owe their color to iron oxides in various states of hydration and sometimes also to manganese. Their mineralogy generally involves quartz, kaolinite, hematite, goethite, and sometime maghemite. Kaolinite is always present with iron oxides. The physical properties of lateritic soil vary according to the mineralogical composition and particle size distribution of the soil. The granulometry can vary from very fine to gravel according to its origin, thus influencing geotechnical properties such as plasticity and compressive strength. One of the main advantages of lateritic material is that it does not readily swell with water. This makes it an excellent packing material particularly when it is not too sandy.

Improving Lateritic Soils for Construction Purposes

Stabilization processes are very complex because many parameters come into play. The knowledge of soil properties can help to better consider what changes, the economic studies (cost and time), as well as production and construction techniques to use. The simplest process consists of taking soil and drying it in open-air. It is the ―pise technique, rammed earth, adobe, and brick dried in the sun, widely used in the majority of African countries. More elaborate processes can include heat treatment, or mixing soil with ordinary Portland cement, lime, etc.

Limult Group sells quality Laterite for road constructions_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Survey Plans

A land survey represents pictorially the legal boundaries and dimensions of a surveyed parcel of land. It identifies the type and location of monuments or survey posts set in the ground to define the boundaries of the parcel. Some types of survey plans are subdivision plan, reference plan, posting plan, air space plan or strata plan.

Survey plans are prepared by professional Limult land surveyors for filing in a land title office. Many historical survey plans are available only in hardcopy format.

A plan is a technical and legal document prepared by a registered cadastral surveyor.

A plan is considered current until a new survey has been conducted and registered for the subject lot, and a new title issued. The certificate for each lot in Limult refers to the current survey plan. A plan may be the current plan for some of the lots shown on the plan, but other lots may have been cancelled by a newer plan. This may mean that a current plan of a lot could be from the 1900s, whereas the current plan for a nearby lot may be either newer or older.

A survey plan does not include building location unless the property is a building unit. For more information on buildings, contact the relevant local government.

Survey plans do not contain land contours. A registered surveyor can create these plans for you.

A current plan of a lot may not show easements, leases or covenants as such interests may have been created by a different survey plan.

Reading a survey plan

A survey plan will include bearings, distances and area for all parcels covered by the survey plan. Sometimes the measurements for an individual parcel are not included. This occurs where the dimensions of one parcel are the same as the adjacent lots (e.g. if lots 1 to 20 are all the same size, the dimensions may only be shown on lot 1).

A survey plan does not include the measurements from the kerb to the property boundary.

Depending on when the survey was conducted, the information recorded on the plan may vary.

For example:

  • Some older plans may include roman numerals, notes and annotations, or the word 'road' when the road had not been named at the time of survey.
  • A survey plan may also include old street names.
  • Historical survey plans may include county prefixes and prefix abbreviations.
  • Depending on the age of a plan, dimensions may be recorded in a number of formats and you may need to convert from imperial to metric.

Contact us

If you need a survey plans service or you have questions about survey plans, Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


Limult Plaster Sand

Plaster Sand not only can be used to make plaster but it can also be used in a cement/sand/gravel mix to make concrete. Use Plaster Sand to set pavers, or fill in holes and low spots in your lawn.

Plastering is one of the most ancient building techniques. Evidence indicates that primitive peoples plastered their reed or sapling shelters with mud, thus developing more durable structures and more effective screens against vermin and inclement weather. More lasting and slightly materials in time replaced mud. Some of the earliest plastering extant is of a quality comparable to that used in modern times. The pyramids of Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least 4,000 years ago that is still hard and durable. The principal tools of the plasterer of that time were in design and purpose like those used today. For their finest work the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsum that is identical to plaster of Paris.

Plaster as a medium of artistic expression waned by the 19th century, when imitation and mechanical reproduction displaced this creative art. However, as a surface material for interior walls and ceilings and to a lesser degree for exterior walls, plaster remains in common use. It facilitates cleanliness and sanitation in building and is a retardant to the spread of fire.

which sand is best for plastering?

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It provides the structure of plaster, and the quality of your sand can make the difference between success and failure.

Basically river sand are used for any plastering work. Generally, in any plastering work plasterers are used natural sand, crushed stone sand or crushed gravel sand. Though, there is a grading limit of sand which are used in plastering work. Other types of sand will also work, but it could be more expensive to use.

Limult Group sells quality plaster sand for strong housing construction_ thus providing for the nation. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


LIMULT KEROSENE

A REVIEW OF HOUSEHOLD USES AND THEIR HAZARDS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

Kerosene is a flammable liquid mixture of chemicals that are produced in the distillation of crude oil. To produce kerosene, crude oil is distilled in a distillation tower in a process similar to that used to produce diesel and gasoline. It is a medium weight distillate in the refining process, and can be produced by distilling crude oil (here it is known as straight run kerosene) or by hydrocarbon cracking heavier petroleum (here it is known as cracked kerosene). The chemical composition of kerosene is fairly complex, and it is a complex mixture of paraffins (55.2%), naphthenes (40.9%), and aromatic hydrocarbons (3.9%). Kerosene tends to contain hydrocarbons that have anywhere from 11 to 13 carbons in the chains. Liquid kerosene fuels contain potentially harmful compounds, including hexane and benzene.

Since the mid-19th century, when it replaced the more expensive whale oil as a lighting fuel, kerosene (synonyms: kerosene, paraffin, paraffin oil, fuel oil no. 1, lamp oil) has become a major household, commercial, and industrial fuel. “Kerosene” started as a brand name but was later adopted (with a small “k”) as a general descriptor. In the first half of the 20th century, the prevalence of household kerosene lighting greatly reduced as electrification and availability of gas fuels spread, particularly in developed countries. However, in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still rely on kerosene or other liquid fuels for lighting, corresponding to 7.6 billion liters consumed annually.

Produced originally from coal (“coal oil”), but later from the fractional distillation of petroleum oil, kerosene is a transparent liquid fuel with a mixture of hydrocarbon chains 6 to 16 carbon atoms in length. Although kerosene has numerous commercial and industrial applications (e.g., aviation fuel, general solvent), the focus of this article is on household uses, for cooking, heating, and lighting, in low- and middle-income countries. These lead to the most widespread exposures to kerosene and its combustion products.

Kerosene is commonly used in countries where solid fuels—biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal—are major household energy sources, often burned indoors without chimneys or smoke hoods.

Kerosene is sometimes advocated as an alternative cleaner fuel for cooking and is often used for lighting where electricity is not available. Some countries, such as India and Nepal, subsidize its retail price to stabilize in-country prices and make it affordable to the poor. However, there is substantial black market diversion of subsidized kerosene, as it mixes easily with the often more expensive diesel fuel, and it is often sold illegally in surrounding countries that do not subsidize it.

Uses

Kerosene is a major component of aviation fuel, making up more than 60% of the fuel. In addition, it can be used as an oil in central heating systems and can be used as a cleaning agent. Although the use of kerosene in many places has decreased over the years as a result of improved access to electricity  and natural gas, it is still used extensively in the developing world for cooking, heating, and lighting. Kerosene cooking is extensive in developing countries, especially among urban populations. Kerosene is often seen as a good alternative to solid fuels, biomass, and coal and thus kerosene lanterns are used in places where access to electricity is not available. It is estimated that globally 500 million households use fuels such as kerosene for lighting.

Health Risks

The use of kerosene as an oil in heaters can be dangerous and because of that it is not used frequently. When operating, kerosene heaters can cause degradation of air quality inside a home while producing toxic and carcinogenic gases. Because of this, kerosene is not actively used in home heating in most developed countries.

In developing countries, the widespread use of kerosene comes with numerous different issues. Hazards of kerosene use include poisoning, fires, and explosions. As well, some kerosene lamps emit fine particulates, carbon monoxide, nitric oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide when burned. These by-products may reduce lung function and increase risks of asthma and cancer. Although kerosene is still a safer option in many cases than using solid fuels.

Justifiably, pollution from solid fuels has provoked efforts to find alternative energy sources or ways of burning biomass more cleanly. Least polluting alternatives at the household level are solar power and electricity. Gaseous fuels, which burn with higher combustion efficiency are the cooking fuels of choice in most countries. Biogas made from anaerobic digestion of animal dung is used where conditions are suitable.

Limult Group sells kerosene for your home needs thus providing for the nations. Feel free to visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people. For further inquiries, call us on +2347052446249.


The African hut

A hut is a building of a lower quality than a house (durable, well-built dwelling) but higher quality than a shelter (place of refuge or safety) such as a tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling.

The hut in the 21st century

Although huts still exist in poor, mostly rural Africa, one could safely argue that they are a thing of the past; that these structures have been overtaken by technology and modernization. However, due to their benefits, like natural air conditioning, serenity and tranquility, the hut has found its way into the modern age.

Huts are not only environmentally friendly but also economically sound. A grass-thatched house is cool and when you drink water kept in a pot, it is as cold as water from the fridge,

The re-emergence of the hut stems from the increasing temperature in Africa due to global warming. In order to attract clients, hotels and luxury pubs have adopted a grass-thatched style for their cottages and bars. Huts are very comfortable. This is mainly because of the building materials used. Both clay and grass are good insulators, but they are porous and allow a free flow of air.

It is often very hot during the afternoons in Africa. The hut remains cool and is a welcome resting place. At night, when temperatures fall, the hut retains its daytime temperature, keeping the inhabitants warm.

The question of whether the re-appearance of huts in Africa and beyond is a positive development or a sign of Africans not letting go of their “primitive” past is indeed a question that can be debated.


Automatic Sliding Doors

Automatic sliding doors are designed with attractive framing and sleek styles to complement any entry. Glass sliding doors are ideal when it comes to unobstructed views and allowing natural light into a building.

Where possible for building entrances, use automatic sliding doors activated by a motion detector. These doors also provide an audible cue for people impacted by blindness to the presence of the entrance. Automatic sliding doors don’t impede traffic flow in any way, don’t require guardrails for protection (as automatic non-sliding doors do) and are universally accessible.

If there’s an emergency or power loss, it should be possible to open automatic sliding doors in the direction of exit using a manual force of 66 N or less.

Overhead motion activated sensors are preferred over floor-pad door activation sensors, as the floor-pads are prone to malfunction in winter. If floor-pad door activation sensors are used, they should be installed with the surface of the pad no more than 13 mm above the surrounding ground surface.

If push buttons are used for automatic swing-type doors, each button should open only one door. Push buttons should never open both leaves of a pair of doors. A person should be able to open or stop an automatic swing-type door with a force of 66 N or less.

Where used, push-button or push-plate activated power door operators should be consistently located at all entrances. They should be colour contrasted to the background environment to enhance visibility for people impacted by blindness. Position push buttons/plates so that the opening door doesn’t hit the person opening the door or their guide dog.

Characteristics and Advantages

(1) Automatic sliding door mechanism are available in either single sliding, bi-parting or telescopic configurations.

(2)Modularization design to make installation and adjust more easy;

(3)Adaptable to all types of door frames;

(4)Motor power control system with automatic reversal for user safety;

Automatic Sliding Door System using:

1) 10mm Toughened (Tempered) Frameless Glass Door with Logo Design on Door

2) 5mm Aluminium Framed Glass Door

* Door sizes can be customized

More Powerful

Three roller carriage ensure the door can’t derail from the profile.

European installation design promise its smooth and stable operating.

Rubber damping-washer, advanced synchronous toothed belt and alloy guide roller make sure there is few noise when it works.

Hands free operation is actuated by sensor activation or other automatic activation.

The various operating modes  “ Lock, Exist Only, Permanent Open, Half Open, Automatic” can be selected via remote activation ( remote controller).

Unique design remote controller.

When you don’t need to use remote controller, you can power off to increase its working life

Safe Operation

Safety beam sensor protection

Auto-reverse when it meets obstruction. The impact force is less than 67N.

Easy to open by hand after power fails.

It can open at least 80% within 3s after activation by activators if opening width is up to 2000mm.

Battery works after power fails. Door open and keep open or works normally with battery power.

Fuse protection


African Security Dogs

As a continent, Africa is home to so many different types of terrain. The area has mountains, deserts, plains, and more. As a result, the many African dog breeds are uniquely suited to the countries that they come from. Some dogs have no hair to stay cool in the hear. They are tan in color to blend into the surroundings. Some have long legs to hunt gazelles.

Many of the world's oldest dogs come from Africa, with one breed believed to be from 7000 BC. Ancient versions of today's modern dogs were even used by pharaohs in Egypt as companions and hunting dogs. That's the big thing with breeds from African countries — they are pretty much all hunting dogs or guard dogs to keep owners safe from lions and hyenas, rid of rodents, and stocked with food from their hunts. This differs from say, Chinese dog breeds, which were often used as sleeve warmers or companions for royals versus working, hunting dogs.

Throughout history, the idea of domesticating a dog has always been associated with protection. Even in modern times, dogs are still in the upfront when it comes to guarding their owners against unwanted people and animals. However, there are specific breeds that are favored for the sole purpose of offering protection due to their unique characteristics. The best guard dogs bear a unique type of temperament and physical strength that is needed to ward off intruders.

A guard dog is a brilliant addition to any establishment. The presence of these dogs reduces any chances of any burglary activity. The best guard dogs require experts in dog training to help heighten their guarding skills. More so, when buying a guard dog for a home environment, homeowners have to train them for a smooth transitioning into their homes.

Which is the best guard dog? The question of who is the best guard dog in the world depends on the preference of the owner. However, dog experts consider the Bullmastiff, Rottweiler, German Shepherd, and Doberman dogs as the best guard dogs in the world.

What is the best guard dog for a family? Dogs are considered man’s best companions due to their loving nature towards their owners. Do dogs really protect their owners? Yes, guard dogs are really protective of their owners. The guard dogs mentioned above are among the best guard dogs breeds in the world and particularly in Africa.


Living in a thatched House

Advantages of living in a thatched House

Most thatched homes tend to be very old and this often means that they have large gardens and are built in excellent locations. The reason for this is that, due to their age, there were many good places to choose to build such properties. Often thatched properties are found near to a natural water supply and are on sheltered, slightly sloping land which gives good drainage and, thus, reduces problems with damp.

The thick straw or reed roofing provides excellent natural soundproofing from overhead aircraft as well as road traffic nearby. Likewise, it gives great insulation meaning that the thatched home remains cool in summer but warm in winter, helping to keep fuel costs low. The smaller windows that are normally to be found on such a property also contribute towards this insulating effect.

Due to their age, thatched houses usually have very thick, solid walls which are advantageous over modern cavity filled walls. In summer the heat from the outside travels very slowly to the inside ensuring that the temperature within remains cool.

The weatherproof thatch on the roof can withstand very strong, even gale force, winds and is very rarely prone to leaking. Leaks are usually caused by one of the wooden spars that are used in the ridge becoming broken and sometimes, after a spell of dry, warm weather the thatch may open slightly and then leak when it rains, however this is self-healing as the thatch will close again naturally.

Disadvantages of living in a thatched House

Due to their age and sometimes remote locations, not all thatched properties will be connected to a mains water or sewerage supply. Instead, water may be drawn from a nearby private or shared well, and either a cesspit or septic tank may be used for sewerage. Cesspits need frequent emptying, therefore a septic tank is preferable as they do not require as much attention as long as they are well below the ground level of the house and have good draining soil surrounding them. Also as a consequence of their remote location, thatched homes may not have any nearby street lighting and it may be necessary to install outside lights on the property.

Due to the old, solid walls and base and the lack of any damp proofing in such properties, the interior walls may suffer from damp caused by moisture rising from ground level.

In wet weather rain tends to cascade down the roof and falls in a constant stream around the entire perimeter of the house (it is unusual to find guttering on a thatched house) which continues for a time even after the rain has ceased. The rain splashing on to the ground can be the cause of mud spots forming on the exterior of the house and may cause green mould growth too. However, this is easily remedied by cleaning with a bleach solution.

The materials used in the thatch mean that the roof is at threat of attacks by birds that are nesting or are looking for insects. Holes may appear in the thatch and should be repaired as soon as possible as, left unrepaired, the birds will concentrate on these areas and the holes will become much larger. Most bird damage to roofs tends to be under the eaves or at the junction of the chimney and the roof. Some roofs have wire netting in these places to prevent this occurring, whilst others are completely covered by wire netting. Unfortunately, roofs that are totally covered by wire netting are often subject to higher insurance premiums as there will be the added difficulty of pulling the wire netting off in the event of a fire. This will delay the fire from being extinguished and result in more widespread fire damage.

Although thatched properties are no more likely to catch fire than regular homes, when a fire does break out the damage will be much more significant as fire spreads more rapidly in thatch. For this reason, insurance premiums will be higher. However as mentioned earlier, if you ask us at Highhouse insurance to quote for your thatched property , we will do our best to save you money.

It can be seen that whilst there are disadvantages of living in a thatched house, these are relatively minor and the advantages of living in such a charming and unique home may outweigh them.


Choosing Brick Wallpaper

Factors to Consider When Choosing Brick Wallpaper

Here are some few things you to need to pay attention to when selecting brick wallpaper for your interior design:

The very first thing that you will need to consider when selecting brick wallpapers for your interior design is your space. Depending on your preferences, you will need to go for the right wall so that your rooms can pop to their full potential. It is critical for you to consider the space so as to select the best possible location for your brick wallpaper application. This will help you tie the room together seamlessly.

Speaking of your space, another important thing that you need to consider is the layout of the room. If your room has a shape similar to that of a cone-head, it will be hard to erect a brick wallpaper. In addition to this, you should also take into consideration other pieces of art that might consume all space required for your wallpaper. In simple terms, if you are only able to see 15% of your brick wallpaper, is it worth having it on your wall?

  • What do you want to make standout

What do you want to achieve with your brick wallpaper interior design? Brick style wallpaper can be installed in a dining room so as to highlight a china filled armoire or wooden table. In your living, you can apply brick effect wallpaper so as to emphasize the look of your leather sofa and other décor pieces you have. Additionally, you could also install brick wallpaper so as to boost the look of your office or fireplace, at home.

To get the best possible appeal out of a brick wallpaper design, ensure that you install it on surfaces that are undisturbed by doors or windows. Also, note that different rooms require a different wallpaper design and style. For instance, a brick wallpaper bedroom design should be moisture-resistant while a kitchen wallpaper ought to be stainless and washable.


Brick Wallpaper

Benefits of Brick Wallpaper

There are numerous benefits that a brick wallpaper will have over a normal brick wall. A modern brick wallpaper is a fascinating alternative, which offers a similar emotional and physical connection. It can be referred to a transformational tool and a great step in interior design. Furthermore, with a contemporary brick wallpaper, the installation process is quite quick and easy. Due to this, you can end up saving a lot of labor and maintenance costs, plus other important resources.

Here are some other great advantages of having a brick wallpaper over any other kind of wall decoration.

  • Brick Wallpaper is Durable

Brick wallpaper is quite long lasting and can also withstand conditions in high traffic areas, and wear and tear from kids. While it might require some extra knowledge to apply perfectly, a good brick wallpaper is made to last for over 10 years.

  • It is Perfect for Hiding Imperfections

In case you want to hide imperfections in your wall such as when it is cracked, uneven, or damaged, brick wallpaper can be of great benefit to you. Brick wallpaper is able to go several steps further than any other wallpaper due to its great ability to disguise flaws. Therefore, erecting a brick wallpaper can consume lesser time and resources than having to fix all imperfections on your wall.