Electricity Generation in Nigeria by Limult

Nigeria is endowed with large oil,
gas, hydro and solar resources, and it has the potential to generate 12,522 MW
of electric power from existing plants. On most days, however, it is only able
to dispatch around 4,000 MW, which is insufficient for a country of over 195
million people. Power Africa technical support to distribution companies in
Nigeria helped them increase revenue by over $250 million - money that can be
reinvested into the distribution network, improving service and expanding
access. The Nigerian power sector experiences many broad challenges related to
electricity policy enforcement, regulatory uncertainty, gas supply,
transmission system constraints, and major power sector planning shortfalls
that have kept the sector from reaching commercial viability.

Electric Demand and Electrification rate

Nigeria has an electrification rate of 45% and despite this relatively low figure in conjunction with the significant issues undermining power supply in the country, demand for electricity keeps increasing. In 2015, power supply in Nigeria averaged 3.1 GW, which was estimated to be only a third of the country’s minimum demand, with many consumers forced to rely on privately owned generators.

Causes of Failure in the Electrical distribution In Nigeria

The factors include inconsistent and misguided power reform policies; inefficiency in power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption;
and the incompetent work force of the energy companies.

Having stated the above problems of electrical
distribution in Nigeria, Limult Group is presently leading the path of
sustainable and 24/7 uninterrupted power supply to the above mentioned problems
which are;

  • Solving barriers in the gas-to power value chain: this is done by launching a federal coordination mechanism covering gas supplies, generation, transmission and distribution.
  • Plan for renewable energy integration: complete development of the 14 planned solar plants.
  • Investing in new grid infrastructure to facilitate integration of intermitted source.
  •  Integrate mini-grids into DisCo networks to supply power to underserved areas.

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our redefining industry development services or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people.


Liquefied Natural Gas Plant by Limult

The earth has enormous quantities of
natural gas, but much of it is in areas far from where the gas is needed. To
move this cleaner-burning fuel across oceans, natural gas must be converted
into liquefied natural gas (LNG), a process called liquefaction.

What is LNG –
liquefied natural gas?

LNG
is natural gas that has been cooled to –260° F (–162° C), changing it from a
gas into a liquid that is 1/600th of its original volume. This reduction in volume enables the gas to be transported
economically over long distances.

Liquefaction plants

 LNG liquefaction plants are generally
classified as baseload or peak shaving, depending on their purpose and size.
The process for the liquefaction of natural gas is essentially the same as that
used in modern domestic refrigerators, but on a massive scale. A refrigerant
gas is compressed, cooled, condensed, and let down in pressure through a valve
that reduces its temperature by the Joule-Thomson effect. The refrigerant gas
is then used to cool the feed gas. The temperature of the feed gas is
eventually reduced to −161°C, the temperature at which methane, the main constituent
of natural gas, liquefies. At this temperature, all the other hydrocarbons in
the natural gas will also be in liquid form. In the LNG process, constituents
of the natural gas (propane, ethane, and methane) are typically used as
refrigerants either individually or as a mixture. Feed pretreatment and
refrigerant component recovery are normally included in the LNG liquefaction
facility. LPG and condensate may be recovered as byproducts.

How do we use
LNG?

LNG is returned to a
gaseous state at LNG import and regasification terminals around the world. Once
it has been warmed to become natural gas, it is dispersed through pipelines for
use by homes and businesses. It can be used in a variety of ways: Residential
uses for natural gas include cooking, heating homes and generating electricity,
while commercial uses for natural gas include heating, generating electricity,
manufacturing products like fertilizers, paints and medicines, and occasionally
fueling commercial vehicles.

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our refining industry development services or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people.


Nigeria Minerals, Energy and Power by Limult

Nigeria has a variety of both renewable and nonrenewable resources, some of which have not yet been effectively tapped. Solar energy, probably the most extensive of the underutilized renewable resources, is likely to remain untapped for some time.

Resources extraction

This is the most important sector of the economy. The most economically valuable minerals are crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, and columbite (an iron-bearing mineral that accompanies tin). Petroleum, first discovered in 1956, is the most important source of government revenue and foreign exchange. Most of the oil output comes from onshore fields in the Niger delta, although an increasing proportion of the crude is produced at offshore locations. There are oil refineries at Port HarcourtWarri, and Kaduna. Nigeria has been a member of OPEC since 1971.

There are vast reserves of natural gas, but most of the gas produced is a by-product of crude oil. In the past this was burned off, as there was no market for it, but production has since increased, and Nigeria became a globally ranked exporter of this commodity. Production has often been interrupted by protests, as the inhabitants of the oil-producing regions have demanded a larger share of the revenues.

Nigeria possesses significant reserves of coal, but these deposits are being developed gradually. Coal is used by the railroad, by traditional metal industries, and by power plants to generate electricity. Coal mining, initially concentrated around the city of Enugu and its environs, began in 1915. It declined after the late 1950s with the discovery of oil but subsequently increased. Substantial coal reserves of varying quality can be found in south-central states in a band that stretches from Benin to Cameroon. Deposits discovered more recently in the southwestern part of the country at Lafia-Obi are being developed for the Ajaokuta steel complex.

The Jos Plateau, where tin mining began in 1905, also contains columbite. By the early 21st century, the country’s tin-smelting capacity had not been reached, a result of diminished world demand in the late 1980s; production of columbite has also declined since the mid-1970s. There are iron ore deposits in the Lokoja area, and limestone occurs in many areas, where it is widely exploited for manufacturing cement and for use in the steel industry. Extensive iron ore deposits found in Kwara state have been exploited since 1984. Other mined minerals include gypsum, kaolin, barite, gold, sapphires, topazes, and aquamarines. There are also uranium deposits in the country.

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our refining industry development services or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people.

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Bonny Island Liquified Natural Gas Plant Development by Limult

The Plant

​ The plant ranks amongst the biggest and top performers worldwide; its performance is regularly benchmarked internationally with other LNG plants around the world.

The plant has rapidly and successfully made the transition
from a construction project to a stable production operation, with a robust
framework of people, processes, systems and organisation, as well as relentless
focus on operational excellence and continuous improvement. In addition to
regular maintenance of the assets to assure integrity and reliability,
opportunities are continuously sought to debottleneck the plant, incorporating
proven techniques and processes to maximize production and manage human
interferences and impacts. The plant has also embarked on a structured
programme of asset rejuvenation to extend the plant life beyond the current
design life. All these activities are underpinned by a Health, Safety, Security
and Environment (HSSE) culture that continually seeks improvements in the safe
and sustainable utilisation of our assets.

For NLNG, November 1995 will remain a remarkable month in
its corporate history. That was when the Final Investment Decision (FID) was
taken by the shareholders to build a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant in
Finima, Bonny Island in Rivers State. This was followed in December 1995 by the
award of a turnkey Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract to
a consortium of engineering firms, TSKJ, comprised of Technip, Snamprogetti,
M.W. Kellog and Japan Gas Corporation for the Plant (consisting of two
trains—Trains 1 and 2, called the Base Project), the Gas Transmission System
(GTS) and the Residential Area (RA).

Construction at the Plant site commenced in February 1996
and on August 12, 1999, Train 2 was ready for startup. Production of LNG
commenced on September 15. Train 1 subsequently came on stream on February 27,
2000. The second phase of development, called Expansion Project, commenced with
an FID in February 1999 to develop Train 3 and the Plant's Natural Gas Liquids
(NGLs) Handling Unit (LHU)—condensate stabilisation and Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG) production units. The expansion project was completed and came into
operation in November 2002.

The next phase of development called the NLNGPlus Project,
comprised of Trains 4 and 5, commenced with an FID in March 2002. Train 4 came
on stream in November 2005 and Train 5 was started up I February 2006. NLNGSix
Project, consisting of Train 6 and additional condensate processing, LPG
storage and jetty facilities, commenced with an FID in 2004. Train 6 became
operational in December 2007.

With six trains currently operational, the entire complex is
capable of producing 22 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, and 5mtpa of
NGLs from 3.5 Billion (standard) cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of natural gas
intake.

Plans for building Train 7 which will lift the total
production capacity to 30mtpa of LNG are currently progressing. FID for the
8mtpa train was taken in December 2019, paving the way for the award of
Engineering, Procurement and Construction Contracts to SCD JV Consortium in May
2020. Find out more about Train 7 Project.

​The main elements of the facilities already in operation
are:

Diversified gas supply (Associated Gas and Non-Associated
Gas) and six main dedicated gas transmission pipelines, with four of them
located on-shore.

Six LNG processing units (trains) with a total nameplate
processing capacity of 22mtpa.

Four LNG storage tanks, each with a capacity of 84,200 cubic
metres.

Four LPG refrigerated storage tanks, each with a capacity of
65,000 cubic metres (two each for propane and butane).

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our refining industry development services or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people.


Warri Oil Refinery Development by Limult

The Warri refinery was established
in 1978 with a refining nameplate capacity of 100,000 barrels per stream day
plant and was debottlenecked to 125,000 barrels per stream day in 1987. The
refinery is located at Ekpan, Warri, Delta State, and it is operated by the
Warri Refining & Petrochemicals Company (WRPC) Limited, an NNPC subsidiary.
The refinery was installed as a complex conversion plant capable of producing
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Dual Purpose
Kerosene (DPK), Automotive Gas Oil (AGO), and Fuel Oil from a blend of Escravos
and Ughelli crude oils’. WRPC has a petrochemical plant complex that produces
Polyproylene, and carbon black from the propylene-rich feedstock and decant oil
from the Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit (FCCU).

Apr. 30, 2000, Nigeria awarded
Italian company Comerint SPA a $7.6 million contract for turnaround maintenance
for its 125,000 b/d refinery at Warri, said a spokesman for Nigerian National
Petroleum Corp. The work was expected to be completed within 5 months. The
contract was part of a drive by NNPC to repair all its refineries, which have
been plagued for years by repeated and debilitating failures.

The plant has been out of service
due to an explosion in its crude distillation unit heater that caused major
damage to the main crude oil heater. Ten companies were shortlisted for the
Warri contract before Comerint won the bidding process. The most recent
maintenance work was in 1994.

Nigeria has three other refineries
60,000 b/d and 150,000 b/d plants at Port Harcourt in the
southeast and a 110,000 b/d plant at Kaduna, in the north. Turnaround
maintenance at Port Harcourt's 60,000 b/d refinery was completed in 1999, while
the 150,000 b/d plant was shut for similar work on May 15. It is being rehabilitated
by Nigerian firm Chrome.

The rehabilitation of the Kaduna
plant, started more than 2 years ago with an expected cost of $240 million, is
yet to be completed.

Nigeria plans to eventually
privatize the four plants, which provide only 40% of domestic refined products
supply.

Contact us at +2347052446249 for
more information on our refining industry development services or visit our
store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for
the people.


Port Harcourt Oil Refinery Development by Limult

Petroleum Minister Timipre Sylva was cited by Agence France-Presse (AFP) as saying that Italian firm Maire Tecnimont has already been selected by the government to undertake the repair work at the Port Harcourt refinery, which has a refining capacity of about 210,000bpd.

Due to the lack of domestic refining capacity, the country relies on imported petroleum products despite being Africa’s top oil producer, reported AFP.

Crude oil almost always needs to be processed (refined) prior to consumption. The process of refining separates crude oil into useable finished products for transportation, residential and commercial heating, power generation, petrochemical production and asphalt formation. It is refining that gives oil its value to end-customers. Marketing refers simply to the distribution and sale of refined products, from bulk distribution to retailing. Integrated oil companies tend to report refining and marketing earnings together.

The refining industry is a global, highly cyclical commodity business in which profitability is sensitive to marginal changes in product supply or demand. Marketing, on the other hand, is more regional in nature, and earnings are more stable. The volatility of refining and marketing, or ‘downstream’ earnings, arises primarily because of the cyclicality of refining margins.

Limult Group provide a refinery project management service, providing our clients with expert consultation on refinery construction projects and new proposals, oil refinery plant optimization and the development of new strategies for the marketing of crude oil products.

Contact Us at +2347052446249 for more information on our refining industry development services or visit our store at www.limult.com/shop to see more products that we make available for the people.